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Prolog Omega 3 Soft Gels




 


Product Code: PROLOG-OMEGA-3-SOFT-GELS
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PRODUCT INFORMATION

Description:

Prolog Omega 3 Soft Gels: This blend of marine-based nutritional oils provides a unique balance of Omega-3 fatty acids Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Incorporating fatty acids in the diet is necessary for maintaining overall cardiovascular and general health. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that, adults receive 20-35 percent of energy from dietary fats, avoiding saturated and trans- (“bad”) fats, and increasing omega-3 fatty acids.

The Omega-3 fatty acids, Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA), Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are necessary for the maintenance of cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous systems and skin health.

This product is designed for people who do not have enough omega fatty acids (“Good” fats) in their diets. This supplement may have a beneficial effect on serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) and have general anti-inflammatory actions.

The Natural Fish Oil Concentrate used in this soft gel is manufactured under strict quality control standards. It is tested to be free of potentially harmful levels of contaminants (i.e. mercury, heavy metals, PCB's, dioxins, and other contaminants).

Ingredient List:

Omega-3 (500 EPA / 250 DHA)

Purity:

Concentration of dioxins less than 1 ppt.

Concentration of EPA and DHA greater than 60%

Concentration of mercury less than 10 ppb (parts per billion)

Concentration of PCB's less than 30 ppb/g

The Scientific Basis:

From fats and other raw materials, the liver is able to make most fatty acids by the addition of carbon atoms. However, the liver cannot synthesize omega-3 fatty acids and they are therefore called “essential,” meaning that we cannot make them and that they must come from our food. Omega-9 fatty acids, however, can be synthesized on an as-needed basis by the body and do not have to come from the diet. They are therefore called “non-essential” fatty acids. “Non-essential” certainly does not mean “not important.” The names of these fatty acids come from the location of the carbon double bond, closest to the ω (omega or methyl or -CH3) end of the fatty acid chain. For example, any polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond starting from the methyl (-CH3) end of the molecule lies between the third and fourth carbon atoms is called an omega-3 fatty acid.

Most of the fatty acids in the diet are metabolized to supply energy; however, small amount are converted to key biochemical modulators. For example, the eicosanoids are local, hormone-like regulators with 20 or more carbons that play roles in blood clotting, contraction and relaxation of artery walls, and inflammation. They also bind to receptors in cells that regulate genetic function. The liver elongates either cell membrane lipids or circulating free fatty acids until they are chains of 20-22 carbons. Elongation of these fatty acids alternates with desaturation, or the insertion of double bonds into them, which converts them into new fatty acids. When a fatty acid reaches the length of 20 carbons, it may then be converted into various eicosanoids (leukotrienes, lipoxins, prostacyclins, prostaglandins and thromboxanes). Eicosanoids may have differing or even opposing effects, depending upon whether they are derived from omega-3, omega-6 or omega-9 fatty acids.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

There are three main omega-3s:

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) come primarily from fish, and are sometimes called marine omega-3s. Fatty fish like mackerel, lake trout, halibut, herring, sardines, bluefish, albacore tuna and salmon have elevated levels of EPA and DHA. Aside from fresh seaweed, a staple of many cultures, plant foods rarely contain EPA or DHA.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the most common omega-3 fatty acid, is found in vegetable oils and nuts, flax seeds and flaxseed oil, leafy vegetables, and some animal fat, (especially in grass-fed animals). Generally, ALA is an energy source, with limited conversion into EPA and DHA.

Potential Health Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

Cancers:

Although more studies are necessary to better understand the disease prevention mechanisms, women who eat diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids may be less prone to develop breast cancer than those women who eat omega-3 poor diets.

Omega-3 fatty acids seem to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Inuit Eskimos, whose diets are rich in fatty fish have an especially low rate of colon and rectal carcinomas. Animal studies and bench research have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent the progression of colon cancer and initial human trials suggest that daily fish oil consumption may slow the progression of early-stage colon cancer

Population-based studies of men who consume a low-fat diet including fish and/or fish oil suggest that such a diet may help prevent the development of prostate cancer.

Cardiovascular Disease:

Multiple clinical trials have suggested that a diet low in saturated fats and rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (omega-3s) may help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Further, the two omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil (EPA and DHA) help reduce risk factors for heart disease, including elevated cholesterol and high blood pressure. Fish oil has been shown to lower levels of triglycerides and to lower the risk of death, heart attack, stroke, and abnormal heart rhythms in people who have already had a heart attack.

Recently, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a science advisory in Circulation. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined in adequate, large, prospective randomized clinical studies, randomized trials have investigated the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of heart disease, and those with prevalent coronary artery disease. Specifically, those with a recent cardiovascular disease event, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure without preservation of left-ventricular function, may benefit from prescribed omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The AHA advisory also concluded that there are several groups for whom omega-3 supplements are not indicated and therefore, patients are not likely to benefit. These include patients without known cardiovascular but who have diabetes or prediabetes, patients with multiple risk factors for heart disease but no prior clinical events, patients with atrial fibrillation, and patients who are recovering from heart surgery.

Fish oil also appears to help prevent and treat atherosclerosis by retarding the development of blood clots and plaque formation. People who follow a Mediterranean-style diet, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, generally have higher HDL (good) cholesterol levels, which help promote heart health. Diets rich in fatty fish also tend to have increased HDL cholesterol and decreased triglycerides. Clinical investigations have demonstrated that alpha linolenic acid (ALA) in walnuts can be converted to omega-3s in the liver, and have been reported to lower total cholesterol and as well as triglycerides in people with elevated lipid levels.

Although fish oil supplementation may reduce the risk of occlusive (plaque rupture and clot-related) stroke, high doses of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids (>3000 mg/day) may increase the risk for bleeding and a hemorrhagic stroke (brain artery rupture).

Diabetes mellitus (Type II):

Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil can help lower triglycerides and raise the low serum levels of HDL often seen in diabetes. Omega-3s may also reduce circulating insulin levels and decrease insulin resistance, possibly resulting in elevated fasting blood glucose levels. In diabetics, alpha linolenic acid (e.g., from flaxseed and walnuts) may not have the same benefit as fish oil in that some people with diabetes are not able to effectively convert ALA to a form of omega-3 fatty acids that is useful.

Growth and Development:

Benefits neurological development and central nervous system, including retinal function. Infants with insufficient omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy are at risk for persistent visual and neurological deficits.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases:

Studies in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease patients are mixed as to whether omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce symptoms. It is known, however, that omega-3s may have side effects that are similar to symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease: belching, bloating, diarrhea and flatulence.

Autoimmune conditions:

The symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease of the joints, are improved by fish oil but the natural history and progression of the disease are not affected. Several studies have shown that omega-3s reduce joint pain and morning stiffness in RA and may allow

Several small clinical investigations have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids may help reduce symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune condition characterized by skin rash, fatigue and arthritis.

Mental function:

Important for cognitive function, memory, performance and behavior. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that reduced intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with increased risk of age-related mental decline or dementia, including Alzheimer disease. Perhaps through the beneficial effects on vascular function (decreased endothelial inflammation) omega-3 fatty acids seem to be protective against dementia.

Studies regarding depression, bipolar affective disorder, schizophrenia and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mixed with respect to outcomes. That is, whereas some studies suggest that omega-3s may be of benefit in these conditions, other studies are contradictory and shows no benefit in these disorders.

Renal disease:

Omega-3 fatty acids seem to preserve kidney function in IgA nephropathy and may reduce blood clot formation in hemodialysis patients.

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content of Selected Foods:

Fish

Portion

Total n-3 FA (g)

Salmon, cold water, fresh and frozen, cooked

4 oz.

1.7

Sardines, canned in oil, drained

4 oz.

1.8

Tuna, canned in water, drained

4 oz.

0.3

Tuna, canned in oil, drained

4 oz.

0.2

Cod, fresh and frozen, cooked

4 oz.

0.6

Mackerel, canned, drained

4 oz.

2.2

Swordfish, fresh and frozen, cooked

4 oz.

1.7

Crab, soft shell, cooked

4 oz.

0.6

Lobster, cooked

4 oz.

0.1

Bluefish, fresh and frozen, cooked

4 oz.

1.7

Salmon, canned, drained

4 oz.

2.2

Smelt, rainbow

4 oz.

0.5

Scallops, Maine, fresh and frozen, cooked

4 oz.

0.5

Nuts & Seeds

Portion

Total n-3 FA (g)

Almonds, dry roasted

1 oz.

0

Walnuts

1 oz.

2.6

Flax seeds

1 oz.

1.8

Pecans, dry roasted

1 oz.

0.3

Pistachios, roasted

1 oz.

0.1

Poppy seeds

1 oz.

0.1

Pumpkin seeds, shelled

1 oz.

0.1

Sesame seeds

1 oz.

0.1

Oils

Portion

Total n-3 FA (g)

Walnut oil

1 Tbsp.

1.4

Soybean oil, un-hydrogenated

1 Tbsp.

0.9

Flax seed oil

1 Tbsp.

6.9

Canola oil

1 Tbsp.

1.3

Cod liver oil

1 Tbsp.

2.8

Olive oil

1 Tbsp.

0.1

Sardine oil

1 Tbsp.

3.7

Grains & Beans

Portion

Total n-3 FA (g)

Soybeans, dried, cooked

½ cup

0.5

Tofu, regular

4 oz.

0.3

Greens

Portion

Total n-3 FA (g)

Precautions:

Omega-3 fatty acids should be used cautiously by people who have a bleeding disorder, or take blood-thinning medications, including enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), clopidogrel (Plavix), or aspirin. Doses of omega-3 fatty acids >2500-3000 mg daily may increase the risk of bleeding, even in people without a history of bleeding abnormalities or in people not taking other medications.

People with either diabetes may have impaired ability to convert alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to the other two omega-3 fatty acids and therefore need to eat a diet with increased EPA and DHA. Those with type 2 diabetes may note increases in fasting blood sugar levels while taking omega-3 supplements.

It is uncertain whether people with fish or shellfish allergies can safely consume fish oil supplements.

Fish liver oils, such as cod liver oil, are not the same as fish oil. Fish liver oils contain relatively large amounts of vitamins A and D as well as omega-3 fatty acids. Both of these vitamins can be toxic in large doses. The amounts of vitamins in fish liver oil supplements vary from one product to another.

Some supplements may have side effects, may affect underlying medical conditions, or may interact with prescription medications. Therefore, Prolog Health vitamins and supplements are recommended for use under the direct supervision of your physician.

Every Prolog Health product exceeds the standards and requirements set forth in the FDA's Code of Federal Regulation (21 CFR, 111) Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP).

Proudly Made in the USA, with ALL USA Ingredients!

References:

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2. Deckbaum RJ, Torrejon C. The omega-3 fatty acid nutritional landscape: health benefits and sourcs J Nutrition 2012 142 (3):5875-5915.

3. Willett WC. The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2007; 8 Suppl 1:S42-5.

4. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 2014; 114:136-153.

5. Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, et al. Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation. 2005; 111:157-64.

6. Vannice G, Rasmussen H. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114:136–53.

7. Ramsden CE, Hibbeln JR, Majchrzak SF, Davis JM. N-6 fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:1586–600.

8. Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, Bezanson JL, Dolor RJ, Lloyd-Jones DM, Newby LK, Pina IL, Roger VL, Shaw LJ, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a guideline from the American heart association. Circulation. 2011;123:1243–62.

9. Mozaffarian D, Marchioli R, Macchia A, Silletta MG, Ferrazzi P, Gardner TJ, Latini R, Libby P, Lombardi F, O’Gara PT, et al. Fish oil and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) randomized trial. JAMA. 2012;308:2001–11.

10. Jump DB, Depner CM, Tripathy S. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:2525–45

11. Chowdhury R, Warnakula S, Kunutsor S, Crowe F, Ward HA, Johnson L, Franco OH, Butterworth AS, Forouhi NG, Thompson SG, et al. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:398–406.

12. James MJ, Sullivan TR, Metcalf RG, Cleland LG. Pitfalls in the use of randomised controlled trials for fish oil studies with cardiac patients. Br J Nutr. 2014;112:812–20.

13. Kwak SM, Myung SK, Lee YJ, Seo HG. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:686–94.

14. Trikalinos TA, Lee J, Moorthy D, Yu WW, Lau J, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on mortality across diverse settings: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials and prospective cohorts. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012.

15. Delgado-Lista J, Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Br J Nutr. 2012;107 Suppl 2:S201–13.

16. Fleming JA, Kris-Etherton PM. The evidence for alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular disease benefits: comparisons with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Adv Nutr. 2014;5:863s–76.

17. Harris WS, Dayspring TD, Moran TJ. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications. Postgrad Med. 2013;125:100–13.

18. Kromhout D, Yasuda S, Geleijnse JM, Shimokawa H. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work? Eur Heart J. 2012;33:436–43.

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21. Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2014;13:154.

22. Daniel CR, McCullough ML, Patel RC, Jacobs EJ, Flanders WD, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Dietary intake of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of U.S. men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Feb;18(2):516-25

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Circulation. 2017;CIR.0000000000000482, March 13, 2017.


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